Ref: SC003

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The Science of Sugar Confectionery

by William P. Edwards

Royal Society of Chemistry
Publication: January 2000
Paperback, 176 pages
ISBN: 97808540459

Confectionery is a topic close to many people’s hearts and its manufacture involves some interesting science. The confectionery industry is divided into three classes: chocolate, flour and sugar confectionery. It is the background science of this latter category that is covered in The Science of Sugar Confectionery.

The manufacture of confectionery is not a science based industry, as these products have traditionally been created by skilled confectioners working empirically. In fact, scientific understanding of the production process has only been acquired retroactively. Historically however, sugar confectionery has had technological synergies with the pharmaceutical industry, such as making sugar tablets and applying panned sugar coatings.

This book gives an introduction to the subject, with some basic definitions and commonly used ingredients and then moves on to discuss the chemistry of various types of sugar confectionery. These include « sugar glasses » (boiled sweets), « grained sugar products » (fondants), toffees and fudges, « hydrocolloids » (gums, pastilles and jellies) and concludes with a chapter dedicated to sugar-free confectionery.

Table of Contents

Chapter I – Introduction
Food Law / The Scope of Sugar Confectionery / Health and Safety

Chapter 2 – Basic Science
Stability / Colligative Properties / PH / Polarimetry / The Maillard Reaction / Densimetry / Refractive Index / Analytical Chemistry / Water Content / Sugar Analysis / Emulsions / The Chemistry of Oils and Fats

Chapter 3 – Ingredients
Sugars / Dairy Ingredients / Vegetable Fats / Gums and Gelling Agents or Hydrocolloids / Chewing Gum Ingredients

Chapter 4 – Emulsifiers, Colours and Flavours
Emulsifiers / Colours / Flavours

Chapter 5 – Confectionery Plant
Steam Injection Cooking / Vacuum Cooking / Continuous Plant

Chapter 6 – Sugar Glasses in the Chemistry of Boiled Sweets
The Formulation of Boiled Sweets
Manufacturing Processes for Boiled Sweets

Chapter 7 – Grained Sugar Products
Fondant / Fudge / Chocolate-covered Liqueur Sweets

Chapter 8 – Pan Coating
Hard Panning / Soft Panning / Problems in Coating Almonds and Other Nuts / Glazing and Polishing / Process Control Systems / Automated Systems

Chapter 9 – Toffees and Caramels
Cooking Toffees / A Typical Toffee / The Process / Toffee as an Ingredient of Other Products

Chapter 10 – Gums, Gelled Products and Liquorice
Pastilles, Gums and Jellies / Making Gums and Jellies / Liquorice

Chapter 11 – Chewing Gum
Gum Base Characteristics / Texturisers / Antioxidants / Sugars / Loss or Gain of Moisture / Flavours

Chapter 12 – Aerated Products
Marshmallows / Nougat

Chapter 13 – Sugar-free Confectionery
Laxative Effects / The Sugar Substitutes / Making Sugar-free Products / Reducing the Energy Content / Sugar-free Products / Controlled Calorie Products

Chapter 14 – Lozenges
Making Lozenges / Drying / Cream Paste

Chapter 15 – Tabletting
Granulation / Avoiding Granulation / Tablet ting Additives

Chapter 16 – Experiments
Health and Safety / Sugar Crystallisation Experiments / Lozenge Making / Fudge (or Grained Caramel)

Chapter 17 – The Future