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The Science of Chocolate

by Stephen T. Beckett

Royal Society of Chemistry /
Publication: 2008 (2d edition) /
Hardback, 250 pages /

ISBN: 97808540497 /

Price: EUR 60,- + VAT + postage.

The second edition of this international best seller has been fully revised and updated describing the complete chocolate making process, from the growing of the beans to the sale in the shops. The Science of Chocolate takes the reader on the journey of chocolate, to discover how confectionery is made and the way in which basic science plays a vital role.

The second edition contains new chapters, covering topics which include nutrition - why chocolate is good for you - how to stop it melting in hot countries and possible methods of putting bubble inside a chocolate bar. This book will appeal to those with a fascination for chocolate and will be of specialist interest to those studying food sciences and working in the confectionery industry. A series of experiments, which can be adapted to suit students, are included to demonstrate the physical, chemical and mathematical principles involved.

Contents

Chapter 1 The History of Chocolate

1.1 Chocolate as a Drink
1.2 Eating Chocolate
1.3 Chocolate Marketing in the UK
1.4 Chocolate is Good for You

Chapter 2 Chocolate Ingredients

2.1 Cocoa Beans
2.1.1 Cocoa Trees
2.1.2 Commercial Cocoa-Producing Countries
2.1.3 Cocoa Pods
2.1.4 Fermentation
2.1.5 Drying
2.1.6 Storage and Transport
2.2 Sugar and Sugar Substitutes
2.3 Milk and Other Dairy Components
2.4 Chocolate Crumb

Chapter 3 Cocoa Bean Processing

3.1 Bean Cleaning
3.2 Roasting and Winnowing
3.2.1 The Problem of Bean Size Variation
3.2.2 Winnowing
3.2.3 Bean Roasting
3.2.4 Nib and Liquor Roasting
3.2.5 Roasters
3.2.6 Chemical Changes during Roasting
3.2.7 Maillard Reaction
3.3 Grinding Cocoa Nib
3.4 Cocoa Butter and Cocoa Powder Production

Chapter 4 Liquid Chocolate Making

4.1 Chocolate Milling
4.2 Chocolate Conching
4.2.1 Chemical Changes
4.2.2 Physical Changes
4.2.3 Viscosity Reduction
4.2.4 Conching Machines
4.2.5 The Three Stages of Conching

Chapter 5 Controlling the Flow Properties of Liquid Chocolate

5.1 Viscosity
5.2 Particle Size
5.3 Effect of Fat Additions on Viscosity
5.4 Moisture and Chocolate Flow
5.5 Emulsifiers and Chocolate Viscosity
5.6 Degree of Mixing

Chapter 6 Crystallising the Fat in Chocolate

6.1 Structure of Cocoa Butter
6.2 Different Crystalline Forms
6.3 Pre-Crystallisation or Tempering
6.4 Mixing Different Fats (Fat Eutectics)
6.5 Chocolate Fat Bloom
6.6 Some Types of Non-Cocoa Vegetable Fat

Chapter 7 Manufacturing Chocolate Products

7.1 Tempering
7.2 Moulding
7.3 Enrobers
7.4 Solidifying the Chocolate
7.5 Panning

Chapter 8 Analytical Techniques

8.1 Particle Size Measurement
8.2 Moisture Determination
8.3 Fat Content Measurement
8.4 Viscosity Determination
8.5 Flavour
8.6 Texture Monitoring
8.7 Crystallisation Amount and Type

Chapter 9 Different Chocolate Products

9.1 Special Recipes
9.2 Shape-Retaining Chocolate
9.3 Air Bubbles in Chocolate
9.4 Cream Eggs and Other Filled Chocolate Shapes
9.5 Multiple Chocolates and Centres

Chapter 10 Legislation, Shelf Life and Packaging

10.1 Legislation
10.2 Shelf Life
10.3 Packaging

Chapter 11 Nutrition and Health

11.1 Nutrition
11.2 Obesity
11.3 Tooth Decay
11.4 Other Alleged Negative Reactions
11.5 Positive Health Effects
11.6 Psychoactive Compounds

Chapter 12 Experiments with Chocolate and Chocolate Products

Project 1: Amorphous and Crystalline Sugar
Project 2: Particle Separation
Project 3: Fat Migration
Project 4: Cocoa Butter Separation
Project 5: Chocolate Viscosity
Project 6: Particle Size of Chocolate
Project 7: Effect of Lecithin
Project 8: Changing the Continuous Phase
Project 9: Chocolate Temper
Project 10: Hardness Measurement
Project 11: Chocolate Composition and Product Weight Control
Project 12: Distributions and Probabilities
Project 13: Chromatography of Colours
Project 14: Effectiveness of Different Packaging Materials
Project 15: Viscosity and Flavour
Project 16: Heat-Resistance Testing
Project 17: Coefficient of Expansion
Project 18: The Maillard Reaction